Classical Muslim civilization was progressive. The initial rapid expansion of Islam beyond Arabia was one of the most amazing sequences of events in human history. The emergence of a series of empires in muslim lands is also a record of the growth of a culture of cities which produced a flowering in arts and sciences that played a major role in the heritage of human ideas. From 8th to 16th centuries, cities like Baghdad, Damaskus, Cairo, Samarkand and Timbuktu were renowned for extensive and elaborate networks of libraries, bookshops, public baths, and hospitals. Experimental method, and thus science as we know it today, was born here. Philosophy was rescued from oblivion, critiqued, extended and expanded. And in Muslim Spain, a genuine multicultural society emerged, where Muslims, Christians, and Jews participated in a convivencia (The Spanish term for living side by side in harmony).
Ziauddin Sardar & Merryl Wyn Davies 
There is no doubt and on the most acceptable perception that the classical Islam with its intellectual progressivity and productivity, as a matter of fact, constituted a centre of world civilization. It was then the structure of dogma and belief–based Islamic religiosity was scientifically constructed and structured in its scientific discourses, burhani and irfani ones. That was the reason why it was often then called asr al-takwin to which students of Islamic Studies no wonder made it one of their research references in elaborating any current authoritative texts.
This article will try to trace progressive sides derived from ‘asr al-takwin and to at once look for its useful relation to my knowledge with the progressive Islam recently reelaborated in the discourses of contemporary Islamic Studies.
Re-elaborating Discourses of Scientific Progressivity in Classical Islam
When Islam came to the Quraish of Arabia, as described by Ahmad Amin in his Fajrul Islam, there were only seventeen literate members of the tribe having ability to write. It was only oral culture that the most pre-Islam Arabians recognized then as illustrated in their ability to compose poetry and rhetoric, limited political systems among their qabilah leadership, simple economic systems applied in their ghanimah model and their world view unfortunately limited by mountaineer environment as well as dessert surrounding their live-stocks.
Consequently, no world conqueror like Alexander the Great, for an example, was not interested in annexing the Arab peninsula, an unpromising area compared with the two great powers of Rome and Persia. Arabia, Malek Ben Nabi further holds, was like a very small and priceless object in the middle of the two powers.
Fortunately, the arrival of Islam with its vision and mission had changed the peninsula’s status and ‘value’ from its small point into an attractive object to which everybody was attracted. The revolutionary changes did not happen in a second. It needed so gradual steps that the notion became literate people and even pioneers of civilization.
With its intellectual progressivity formerly initiated by the Prophet Muhammad, there emerged a brilliant Islamic civilization. From the time on, there came out hundreds and even thousands of manuscripts and books from different academic interests and disciplines spreaded out all corners of worldwide libraries. In his Mukhadimah al-Burhan fi ushul al-Fiqh, Abd. Adhim Mahmud Dayb has even assumed that there are about 3 million manuscript are now still well stored and kept at various libraries in the world, outside of the collection burnt by Hulaku’s troops (Tartar’s ) in the tragedy of Baghdad’s Fall (1258).
The evidence of the progressivity can also be traced in, for examples, some periods of classical Islam. Historically, the glorious era of Science was successfully developed in the Caliphates of Al-Mansur, Harun al-Rasyid and Al-Makmum.
In al-Mansur era, Linguistics and Literature and Translation projects were really encouraged mainly the translating of any works written in Persian, Indian and Greek languages. It was in the time of al-Mansur that there lived Ibnu al-Muqaffa, a Persian and Greek linguist. It was him who translated the monumental Kalilah wa Deminah culminating in the Arabian Nights. He also translated Shah Namah’s book consisting of Iranian king stories and heroes. It was under the leadership of al-Mansur, Muktazilah’s Rationalismism was developed so tremendously that Moslem scholars in that time had also a time to compose some works on Hadith and Islamic law well.
Imam Abu Hanifah could finish writing on legal system in the era of al-Mansur’s caliphate, while Imam Maliki’s and Syafei in Harun al-Rasyid’s time. Under the administration of al-Makmum moslems witnessed the establishment of an institution called Baitul Hikmah that collected so much books. This library with its rich book collections has been said to own more than 400.000 books. It employs scholars from different cultures, ethnicity, nationality and religions.
In Egypt, it has been assumed that the Abbasiyah Dynasty established a big library having more or less 200.000 books of which its majority were classic Greek Science, Grammar, Lexicography, Hadiths, History, Chemistry and Kings’ biographies. This dynasty gave a special autonomy to Cairo to establish the famous Al-Azhar University. More important to remember is that the Caliph al-Hakim established a centre for Legal Scholars called Darul Hikmah. Moslems also witnessed another intellectual glority in Spain. Emir Abdurrahman III known as Islam administrator having high appreciation to science and music, his hobby. He encouraged Climate and Tradition on writing and translating books, especially the ones on Medicine, Philosophy and Mysticism, This good habit was then sustained so enthusiastically that Cordoba became a centre for excellence on science in its time. Cordoba’s university became a famous and prominent university. No tax on Education then.
Productivity and Agresivity in classical Islamic thought seems to be traced in the emergence of its four visible epistemologic tendencies.
Firstly, Conservative Tendency. This conservative model has assumed the existence of two domains of truth: 1) truth via divine texts and 2) truth via reasonable natural existence towards the texts. The Scientific Product of the approach to Ibn Khaldun in his al-Muqaddimah has been classified into “Transmitted Sciences ” (al-ulum an-naqliyyah)”, such as Qur’anic interpretation, Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence, Ushul Fiqh and Language. Islamic Progressivity in this field can be seen in the emergence of various trends in Fiqh.
The two domains above are then separated into two currents influencing two sects in Fiqh, One of them is called Hadith trend while the other is called ra’yu domain. The last domain developed Islamic law by using analogy (read: qiyas) to solve any problem undetermined by the law. This domain was developed by Syuriah ibn al-Harits (d. 78 H./697 A.D.), Alqamah ibn Qais (d. 62 H./681 A.D.), Masruq al-Ajda’ (d. 63 H./682 A.D.), al-Aswad ibn Yazid (d. 95 H./913 A.D.). This was then followed by Ibrahim al-Nakhai (d. 95 H./913 A.D.), dan Amr ibn Syurahbil al-Sya’by (d. 104 H./722 A.D.). After that the valuable endevour was continued bySesudah Hammad ibn Abu Sulaiman (d. 120 H./737 A.D.), who later became Abu Hanifah’s teacher.
Hadith domain, meanwhile, was developed more literally. This domain would even produce religious decision (fatwa) without any clue mentioned in the Qur’an or Hadith. Some famous pioneers of the domain were among others Ibn Syihab al-Zuhri (d. 124 H./741 A.D.), and Nafi’ Maula Abdullah ibn Umar (d. 117 H./735 A.D.). Both of them were the influential mentors of Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 117 H./735 A.D.).
When Umayyah dynasty was approaching its end of power, there were born two prominent figures in the trend of Fiqh figures. They were Imam Abu Hanifah (born in Iraq in 80 H. /699 A.D. ) and Imam Malik ibn Anas (born in Madinah in 96 H. /714 A.D.), While al-Imam al-Syafi’i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal were both born in the era of Abbasiyah dynasty.
Second, Dialectical inclination applied by Mutakallimun. Although textual analyses constituted its frame of reference, the deductive reasoning of Kalam had an ability to offer textual analyses having influenced theological and philosophical ones (not performed by the first inclination).
In analyzing its issues, Dialectics of Kalam has focused on reasonable the logical relationship (distinctive interpretation on causal connection). The equal significance between Kalam and logics in the perception of Al-Syahrasytani (although criticized by Al-Farabi seemed to be apparently based on reasonable characteristic of Kalam. So, it has been clear that the dialectical approach in Kalam was the gradual step from textual into reasonable or logical one. But textual interpretation tends to be assumed as a fundamental one so that its product is still explanative, not explorative and is still in the area of naqliyyah in term of Ibn Khaldun’s category.
In the thought of Kalam we can find two patterns of dominant reasoning. Firstly, the one that gives priority to reaso before revelation. This pattern is in Islam also called Rationalism as reflecdted in Mu’tazilah. Historically, the emergence of this trend was the result of political problems mainly on the case of caliphs committing big sins. To Washil ibn ‘Atho’, the Mu’tazilah founder, any big sinners are regarded as not believers (mukmin), not unbeliever (kafir) but not between them. The emergence of Mu’tazilah seems to be the result of synthese between Islam (especially in Bashrah and Greek Hellenism and Manichaen’s dualism. Because of its doctrine of teachings al-manzilah baina al-manzilatain, all of the Mu’tazilah’s doctrines are regarded rational argument-based ones. Without revelation, to Mu’tazilah, human beings can live in accordance with Divine rules because mankind, men and women, can use their mind to know goodness, God’s existence and how to express their thanks to God.
The second pattern of reasoning in the thought of Kalam is to give priority to revelation before reasoning as reflected in the trend of ‘Asyariyah. This trend often called As-Sunnah wa Al-Jama’ah, holds that reasoning can not bring humanbeings into a right life in accordance with Divine rules. Consequently, humanbeings should use revelation to meet the divine rules. Historically, this trend was the reaction towards the Mu’tazilah’s doctrines emphasizing the importance of human reasoning too exhaustically in their arguments. Asy’ariah did not recommend to develop the use of scientific-philosophical ideas as what Mu’tazilah did.
Thirdly, philosophical inclination. This model tends to put its body of knowledge into rational basis and so it is explorative. There have been two patterns of reasonings. Those are Peripatetism (Masyaiyyah) and Illuminationism (Isyraqiyyah). The former, Peripatetism, is a philosophical thought that emphasizes rational deduction or formal logics as firstly initiated by Aristotle. The emergence of this model was assumed to be some Moslems’ speculative endevour to integrate or harmonize Islamic teachings with Greek’s rational philosophical ones on the issues of God, nature and mankind. Some philosophers tending to support this model are among others Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, dan Ibn Sina (Avecena). Illuminationism is, meanwhile, a model of Islamic philosophy having mystical characteristics that tried to integrate between intuitive knowledge with rational arguments. The use of this method, hopefully, a philosopher will be illuminated. This model was the expression of disappointment and the reaction towards the former one that emphasized rational arguments only but ignoring intuitive ones in the search of truth. Its rational aspects seem to be influenced by greeek philosophy while its intuitive ones belong to Sufism’s doctrines and are coloured and influenced by the Ancient Persian’s intuitive way of reasoning. It was here in this model that the famous philosopher, Shihab Ad-Din Suhrawardi should be put on.
This second pattern grew rapidly and achieved its triumph in the Shadr Ad-Din Syirazi’s era. The reasoning pattern is called al- Muta’alliyah‘s knowledge (top wisdom). To some Moslem thinkers, the Muta’alliyah’s knowledge is regarded as the completing aspect to the second pattern. The other declared that muta’alliyah knowledge was an aloof pattern in Islamic philosophy, although it was the following step of the second pattern. The reason why it was said as an aloof pattern was that Mulla Shadra takes its philosophical source from the two previous models and from more or less Ibn ‘Arabi’s theosophy.
Fourthly, mystical inclination. This model is grounded on individual intuitive experience called ‘irfani. The model assumed that any intuitve experiences will holloistically perceive an object of knowledge that can only be understood by other approaches fragmentally. To sufistic thought, there are two big patterns of reasonings: philosophical and akhlaqi Sufism. The philosophical Sufism is the one whose teachings support humanbeings to purify themselves to achieve a return to God for their souls or to unite with God. Among concepts belonging to this model are for examples: ma’rifah (from Dzunnun Al-Mishri), mahabbah (from Rabi’ah Al-Adawiyah), Wahdat Al-Wujud (from Ibn ‘Arabi), Ittihad (Abu Yazid Al-Busthami), and hulul (from Ibn Mansur Al-Hallaj). This model was the result of syncretic process among aspects of Islamic teaching on Zuhud and doctrines of pantheism (the unity of God and His Creature.), Alexandrian gnotisism, Buddhism’s doctrines on nirvana, and the doctrines of brahman and atman in Hinduism.
The Akhlaqi Sufism is, on the side, the one whose teachings are intended to get a more understanding on inner aspects of life to be in a noble condition of religious morality. Two leading pioneers of this model were Abu Zhar Al-Ghifari andAl-Ghazali. Its rapid growth, historically, developed in the end of 1st and 2nd ntuury of Hijriyyah, while the 5th century was ‘a fugitive’ of a part of Moslems from a political chaos. This was also assumed to be a reaction towards the emergence of any deviation in Islamic teaching and of theological and philosophical trends in the Islamic world.
Although there are still more evidence to prove the exisyence of progessivity in Classical Islam, the above mentioned facts have sufficiently shown the academic atmosphere in era of classical Islam. To summarize, there are two main variables that determined and made the progessivity possible. The variables are among others:
- There happened a harmonious and assimilative relation among Arabian people and other nations having more earlier advanced experiences on knowledge and its rapid growth. This assimilation went effectively and efficiently. The nations had given their ceratain contribution to the development of knowledge in the world of Islam. The Persian influence, as a matter of fact, to the Islamic world in the political field was very strong. The nation had also shared their wonderful contribution to the developments of science, philosophy and of literature. The other nations having influenced the Islamic world strongly were Indian and Greek nations. The former’s influence was seen in the fields of medicine, mathematics and astrology. The latter, the Greeks had given their contributions to the emergence of process of translating books of some fields of knowledge, and mainly of philosophy.
- The Project of translation lasted in three phases. The first pahse was done the era of al_Manshur to Harun al-Rashid. In this era, more books on mathematics and astronomy were translated. The second phase was proceed in the era of al-Ma’mun’s caliphate to 300 of Hijriyyah. In this time, more works on philosophy and medicine were translated. The third phase began after 300 H when people had known papermaking product.
The Classical Islam’s Progressivity and the Project of Ihya’ al-Turath
In terms of Classical Islam, the word ‘classic’ refers an ancient, conservative and out-of date character. But, if it is understood in terms of its own space and time, especially in terms of historical perspective, it seems clear that we will find out an incredible character of progressivity in the dynamics of classical Islam more specicifically when we mean by the word ‘]progessive’ here etymologically by ‘go ahead’. The question is that: Is the progessive character in the same line with the discourses of progressive Islam enthusiastically discussed in the contemporary Islamic Studies? It seems that there should be farther intensive studies in the future.
Although its substantial meaning is not too different from the other terms such as, for examples, “Inclusive Islam ”, “Transformative Islam” and “Liberal Islam”, the term “progressive Islam” is a new one, in the contemporary Islamic Studies, having been used by scholars and activists for several years to name and any legalize Moslems’ perception and and reaction to struggle for the enforcement of human values such as the advancement of civil society, democracy, justice, gender equity, and advocacy towards oppressed class.
In the one side, the view and action of Progressive Islam to Omid Safi, is the aftermath and continuity of Liberal Islam movement that have appeared since about one hundred and fifty years ago. But, On the other side its appearance was the expression of disappointment towards liberal Islam movement giving more priorities to internal criticism towards Moslem communities’ opinion and action which were far from human values.
In the one side, the view and action of Progressive Islam to Omid Safi, is the aftermath and continuity of Liberal Islam movement that have appeared since about one hundred and fifty years ago. But, On the other side its appearance was the expression of disappointment towards liberal Islamic movement giving more priorities to internal criticism towards Moslem communities’ opinion and action which were far from human values. 
Usually the word progressive Islam is put on side by side with Liberal Islam and Moderate Islam. If progressive Islam is often associated to have more tendencies in critical natural reasoning and the supporting spirit towards Justice and Humanity, liberal Islam is focused on the prevention and establishment of individual right in religion and belief—as implied in the principles of liberal democracy—and religious contextualization in modern nation state; and moderate Islam is perceived by its commitment to global peace and tolerance (mutual understanding).
Progressive Islam, on the other hands, has been contrasted to literalist-fundamentalist groups. There is a long description on it but to summarize, it can be said that the such a model has taken a benchmark: Cordova and Baghdad which developed religious harmony and tolerance, while the literal one took the first generation Moslems by translating their adapted behavioural patterns.
Based on several references, we come to a conclusion that the Progessive Islam which is today initiated by certain Moslem groups has three principle characteristics, those are:
- Progressive, i.e.: the advanced era should not be understood as a threat towards the basic religious deviation (Islamic teachings, but it should be treated as stimuli to the creation of intensively creative respons.
- Contextual, i.e., Islam sould be understood as a religious teaching having relation to the context of time and space. The changing time and regional difference must be the key to intrepret any religious doctrines.
- Humanist, in the sense that Islam is a doctrine having capability to give any solution to human problems universally with no exception of religious and ethnic differences. It is thereby strongly hoped that Islam in facing the social reality of the changing society has no rigidity on its implementation at all.
It is then interesting to conclude that the three characters constitutes the pillar of the Classical Islam’s triumph. The progressive characteristic is here meant by responsive to meet any new challenges of world development that can be seen in its open mindedness. Nowadays, Moslems have taken and given as well as learned much from high cultural inheritance of Byzantium, Christianity, Persian, Egypt, and others. Moslems then analyzed all aspects of the above-mentioned cultural inheritances from different sources to further to build and finally to achieve its high civilization.
The contextual characteristics above reflected themselves in the project of translation and adaptation, in the form of both assimilation, and acculturation with other cultures and traditions. From Persia and Byzantium they adapted various styles of rites and artistical esthetics. Then they adapted mathematics and astronomy from India, and philosophy and logics from Greek civilization. Not only did the Moslems imitated and adapted the civilizational elements an sich but also improved and modified them with new Islamic perspective and aura.
Many criticisms have been addressed to the Classical Islam on its study regarded as un-applicable so as to ‘fly too high’, unimplemented and non-contextual. In terms of a current perspective, there is nothing wrong with the criticism. But, in terms of its past time paradigm, such scientific patterns seemed to be so applicable and contextual to global civilization existing at that time.
On the one side, there were no ones who objected to the Classical Islam’s humanist characteristics to which everybody had been familiar. The fact was that Moslem had “no objection” to live side by side and cooperated with other religions and nations. This evidence can be seen in the reality that there were many translators and “Moslem scholars” recorded in the history of human beings were in fact non-Moslems.
Islamic history, on the other sides, has informed us that Islam was revealed to the earth in the 7th century A.D. bringing its human mission on, for examples, women’s rights, gradual eradication of slavery and full attention and prevention to the opressed class. The revealed Q.S. 4:1 was intended to show that Islam gave much attention to respect women’s rights. In this verse, Allah orders His mankind to give rights of inheritance to both sons and daughters. At that time, before Islam came, the Arabians did not give rights of inheritance to their daughters, and even, according to a story women were inherited things like properties.
It was also told in the history that the Prophet Muhammad gave Jewish and Christians in Madinah to perform their religious duties, to live with the Moslems peacefully. A little bird sings that Umar ibn Khattab did not punish a thief because the thief was forced to steal because of his poverty. Umar’s attitude can be classified into progessive humanist deed. The theory of goodness developed by Ushul Fiqh’s scholars as one of considerations in punishment and the theory of legal changes based on changing situations had also opened a legal progressivity. Some examples above shows us that Islam—mainly the Classical Islam—from its basic teachings has actually taught human character building.
In observing the Classical Islam which has shown us, believe it or not, a portrait of Islamic glority, some of Islamic scholars holds that Moslem scholars in the past time had reached a “maqam” or a high level of intellectual sophistication uncomparable to the present generation. The former Islamic scholars had written everything the Moslems need. The present Moslems just performed what the past ‘Ulama. A famous statement told to describe and figure out a high respect to the past ‘Ulama was expressed in a statement of “ma taraka al-awa’ilu li al-awakhiri syai’an” (the former generation left no spaces at all to the next generation). There is no wonder then there emerged a discourse of ihya’ al-Turas which is sometimes called the Classical Islam’s intellectual revitalization.
If we see that however glorious a thought is, there emerges its historical dimension, so the nproject of ihya’ al-turas cannot be carried out by applying the Classical Islam’s tresuries written long time ago instantaneously. That pattern will ruin the progressive elements of thought. Indeed, it need further elaboration to revitalize the classical treasuries so that Moslems will not fall into a textual otoritarianism as Khaled Abou el-Fadl was scared of it.
In his At-Turas Wa at-Tajdid, Hassan Hanafi says that Turas or the classical treasure can be categorized into two things: On the one side it is true that it was a collection of books and manuscripts kept in libraries, warehouses, mosques and museums. Turas, here, was in form of material, that is the turas written, kept and printed in the forms of books. But, there are other forms called immaterial that is the spiritual inheritance and conservative customs and traditions in the society.
In a more advanced studies, Aisyah Abdurrahman who was also called Bintu Syathi states in her Turasuna Baina Madi wa Hadir that the scope of the Turas can not be bordered by either certain areas or eras. Islamic Turas includes all inheritance of civilization with its chronical time and space. In short, the ancient Egypt’s cultural heritages recorded in papyrus papers belonged to Islamic Turath. So did the heritages of Babylonian, Asyur, Syam, Yaman, Maghrib kingdoms and other areas. Aisyah further says that because their citizens had embraced to Islam, so their past time belonged to the Islamic Turath heritages automatically.
To the present time, as admitted by Aisyah Abdurrahman, the perception on turas seems to sound strange. But, to her, it was not strange to Moslems in the glory of Islamic world. Moslems’ perception of Islamic treasures in the Classical Islam era, Moslem’s perception of the treasure of Islamic intellectualism was so wide that it did not only cover classical heritages that the Arabians and the era of ignortance had inherited but also all Islamized areas. It was also recorded in the history that in terms of sustaining and spreading the treasures of Islamic intellectualism, the Arabian Moslems as well as other Moslems from all sides of the world including the ones from Indonesia such as Syekh Nawawie al-Jawie,
Al-Palembani, Al-Makassari, Al-Ampenani, Al-Sumatrani, and the others also participated in the development of Islamic intellectual heritages. Again, the history of mankind records that some distinguished Moslem scholars were not from Arab peninsula. They are, to mention some, among others al-Imam Bukhari, al-Imam Hanafie, al-Imam Ghazali, al-Imam An-Nasa’i, Ibn Rusyd, Ibn Sina, Ibn Ginni, Abi ‘Ali al-Farisi and other prominent ones.
Furthermore, turats revitalization is not only limited to the turats found in the society of Arab and of the era of ignorance but also to the turats of big nations having embraced Islam. It included in the later time ancient Greek’s inheritance. It is worth to note that the Greek civilization was derived from Eastern inheritances which then inheritged its civilization like the civilizations of, to mention some, Wadi Nil, Wadi al Wafidin, India and the others.
To Aisyah Abdurrahman, this kind of understanding of turats reflects the Moslems’ awareness of their positions in the constellation of civilization in the present time. It leads to the situation that the Moslems will be the pioneers of global civilization.
Hassan Hanafi’s and Aisyah Abdurrahman’s viewpoints will create some significant implications in the Ihya’ al-Turath. Based on Hasan Hanafi’s opinions any efforts to realize the al-muhafadhah ‘ala qadim are not necessarily to ‘museumize’ or to ‘copy and paste’ the turaths’ contents to the contemporary life, but it should be more than that. Of course, the transfer of value and progressive spirit in Islamic nuance are basically a part of al-muhafadhah. The Classical-Islamically progressive, contextual and humanistic spirits constitute significant values which deserve to be ‘sustained’ and ‘revitalized’.
On the other sides, Aisyah Abdurrahman’s point of views produse some Turas’ universal and contextual implication on space. Therefore, Islamic Turas is not only a yellow book and Arabic texts with its Middle Eastern figures, but more than that. The Turas has been regarded as the whole Moslems’ heritage as the result of their dialectical process with space, time and histrory around them. So, Ihya al-Turas meant by sustaining and revitalizing any values of local Islam represented in the existence of traditional modus of Moslems in their life in this world.
As launched in his Tayyarât al-Fikr al-Islâmî, Muhammad Imarah holds that each current contemporary Islamic thought has their own basis in their ‘turats’ (of Classical Islam). So does the Progressive Islam having influenced the discourses of contemporary Islamic Studies. The basic ideas of the Progressive Islam’s progressive, contextual and humanistic characteristics can be traced in all values of their basic principles in the studies of Classical Islam.
It does not mean, nevertheless, that the contents of the Classical Islamic studies will be always relevant to contemporary reality because the existing Islamic studies, as a matter of fact, were born with their own historical boundaries. That is why the duty of the contemporary generation is muhafadhah on the Classical Islam’s heritages together with their untiredless endevour them in the frame of progressive, contextual and humanistic perspective; so that the out of date and unapplicable meanings of the literal and classical heritages can be internalized in the soul of society—to mention Hasan Hanafi’s term—in its sustainabily.
It has been clear then that the Classical Islam’s intellectual heritages is something unavoidabe in our elaboration but not a ‘sacred thing’ to discuss and study. Some viewpoints launched by the past scholars era still relevant to our present situation, but there are also some that are irrelevant to the present time. It is our duty in this time to revitalize the irrelevant ideas.
Abdurrahman, Aisyah. Turathuna Baina Madhi Wa Hadlir (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1991).
Amin, Ahmad. Fajr al-Islam (Cairo: al-Nahdah al-Misriyyah, 1955).
Hanafi, Hassan At-Turath wa al Tajdid: Mauqifuna min al-Turath al-Qadim (Cairo, 1987).
Nabi, Malek Ben. Daur al-Muslim Wa Risalatuhu Fi Thuluth al-Akhir Min
al-Qarn al-‘Isyrin (Damaskus: Dar al-Kutub, t.t.)
Safi, Omid. “What is Progressive Islam?” in http://www.muslimwakeup.com/main/ archieves/2005/04/what_is_progres_1.php.
Sardar, Ziauddin & Merryl Wyn Davies. The No-Nonsense Guide to Islam (London: Verso, 2004).
Syahrasytani. Al-Milal wa al-Nihal (Beirut: Dar al Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1992)
¯ A draft of paper presented in the International Conference on Debating Progressive Islam: A Global Perspective, Graduate School UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta under auspice IAIN Indonesia Social Equity Project (IISEP), July 25-27, 2009.
 Ziauddin Sardar and Merryl Wyn Davies, The No-Nonsense Guide to Islam (London: Verso, 2004), p. 143.
 Ahmad Amin, Fajr al-Islam (Cairo: al-Nahdah al-Misriyyah, 1955).
 Malek Ben Nabi, Daur al-Muslim Wa Risalatuhu Fi Thuluth al-Akhir Min al-Qarn
al- ‘Isyrin (Damaskus: Dar al-Kutub, t.t.), p. 73.
 Al-Syahrasytani, Al-Milal wa al-Nihal, (Beirut: Dar al Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1992), Juz I, p. 23.
 Hassan Hanafi, Al-Turath wa al Tajdid: Mauqifuna min al-Turath al-Qadim (Cairo, 1987), p. 12-13.
 Aisyah Abdurrahman, Turathuna Baina Madhi Wa Hadlir (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1991), p. 8-9
 Ibid., p. 10.